Jakarta Coastal Defence Strategy ( 1 September 2010 – 31 July 2012)
Category : Urban Coastal and River Development
Periode : 1 September 2010 – 31 July 2012
Location : Jakarta, national capital city of Republic of Indonesia
Service Provider : Deltares
Project Value :
Funding : Partners for Water (Dutch bilateral TA)
Clients : Bappenas, Public Works, Menko (Coordinating Ministry for Economic Development), DKI Jakarta
Consortium Partners : Urban Solutions, Witteveen + Bos, Triple-A team
Staff Provided : 4 expatriate experts and 12 Indonesian experts
During the last four decades northern Jakarta has been affected by severe land subsidence at an average rate of 10 cm per year due to excessive deep ground water extraction. In 2010 almost 58% of the land was already below sea level, and in 2030 over 90% of the land is expected to have sunken below sea level. Without intervention a quarter of the national capital city with over 4 million inhabitants will be permanently inundated due to flooding from the sea and from the 13 severely polluted rivers. Flooding also threatens vital economic assets such as the PLN power plants, the seaport of Tanjung Priok, road and rail networks and fishing ports, and the old city of Batavia. Increasing the heights of dikes along the coastline and the rivers would only give temporary relief since these dikes would continue to sink due to land subsidence as long as deep groundwater extraction is not stopped. Actually the situation will worsen, since sea dikes may stop seawater from coming in, but at the same time they prevent the rivers from freely discharging into the sea. Lack of on-land drainage and retention capacity in the densely built-up urban areas and limited pumping capacity further aggravate the flooding problems.
(i) Make an inventory and a diagnosis of the causes, effects and impacts of flooding based on a comprehensive Atlas of greater Jakarta, including the 13 rivers and river embankments;
(ii) Articulate a strategic Agenda to prevent flooding of the coastal zones Jakarta against flooding from the sea, from rivers and from rainfall, taking into account the shared views of stakeholders, expert opinions and Government policies, strategies and plans in other sectors;
(iii) Formulate practical mechanisms for stakeholder participation in planning, investment and implementation based on Aturan-main (=Rules-of-the-Game), and propose multi-source funding of investment plan.
Service Provided : The project consists of following components:
Component 1. Flood Control Measures. The Jakarta Coastal Development Strategy describes effective measures to prevent flooding based on a system of dikes, retention ponds and pumping stations, to be developed in 3 stages: The first stage comprises a low sea dike on the coastline that will have an immediate but temporary effect up to the year 2020, since it will continue to sink due to land subsidence. The second stage comprises an offshore sea dike at 3km from the coastline where the sea is -8m deep and where land subsidence is considerably less, which prevents flooding from the sea up to 2030. The first and second stage give time to prepare and construct the third and final stage, which comprises an offshore sea dike at 6km from the coastline where the sea is-14m deep and where land subsidence does not occur. The area of 100 km2 between the second and the third sea dike will serve as an offshore retention body in which the rivers can freely discharge, from where the water will be pumped out into the sea.
Component 2. Additional Measures. For any solution it will be essential to stop land subsidence, for which Jakarta needs to develop a piped water supply system as an alternative for deep groundwater. On the long term the 100 km2 off-shore retention basin body that is projected between two off-shore dikes will serve as fresh water storage basin. To safeguard the water quality in the water storage basin and prevent pollution by the 13 rivers a sewerage and sanitation system will cover entire Jakarta. Displacement of about 60’000 people will be need to be compensated based on resettlement schemes.
Component 3 Investment opportunities. There is an opportunity for land reclamation of up to 3’000 hectares, which is highly profitable for investors, but can also absorb resettlement of displaced people. On the crests of the three sea dikes toll roads and railways are foreseen. The current port of Tanjung Priok, will expand between the offshore dikes into a modern deep seaport.
Component 4. Multi-source funding. The overall investment cost is estimated at 27 billion USD over a period of 15-18 years. Multi-source funding is orchestrated based on sound public-private partnership arrangements.
- ATLAS Jakarta Coastal Defence Strategy
- AGENDA Jakarta Coastal Defence Strategy
- ATURAN MAIN Jakarta Coastal Defence Strategy
- ATLAS Strategi Pengamanan Pantai Jakarta
- AGENDA Strategi Pengamanan Pantai Jakarta
- ATURAN MAIN Strategi Pengamanan Pantai Jakarta
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